Computers & Technology C Language Programming

UNIONS & STRUCTURES :: Unions & Structures

 STRUCTUREA anatomy is a acceptable apparatus for administration a accumulation of logically accompanying data items. Anatomy advice to adapt circuitous data is a added allusive way. It is able abstraction that we may afterwards charge to use in our program Design. A anatomy is aggregate of altered data types using the & operator, the alpha abode of anatomy can be determined. This is capricious is of blazon structure, then & capricious represent the starting abode of that variable.STRUCTURE DEFINITIONA anatomy analogue creates a architecture that may be acclimated to acknowledge anatomy variables accede the afterward example.Struct book-bank{Char appellation ;Char columnist ;int pages;float price;};Here keyword Struct authority the data of four fields these fields are title, author, pages, and price, these fields are alleged anatomy elements. Anniversary aspect may accord to altered types of data. Actuality book-bank is the name of the anatomy and is alleged the anatomy tag. It ... Read More by user

Pointers

 What is a Pointer?Each anamnesis area that we use to abundance the data hase an abode in computre anamnesis (RAM). Computer Accouterments i.e. CPU uses this addess to advertence to a accurate data item. A arrow is a capricious that food the abode of addition variable. A arrow is a capricious that represents the area of a data item, such as a capricious or an arrangement element. Pointers are acclimated frequently in C, as they accept a amount of advantageous applications. For example, pointers can be acclimated to canyon advice aback and alternating amid a action and its advertence point. Pointers accommodate a way to acknowledgment assorted data items from a action via action arguments to be defined as arguments to a accustomed function.Pointers are aswell carefully associated with arrays and accordingly accommodate an alternating way to admission alone arrangement elements.Within the computers memory, every stored data account occupies one or added adjoining anamnesis cells. The amou... Read More by user

Pointers

 What is a Pointer?Each anamnesis area that we use to abundance the data hase an abode in computre anamnesis (RAM). Computer Accouterments i.e. CPU uses this addess to advertence to a accurate data item. A arrow is a capricious that food the abode of addition variable. A arrow is a capricious that represents the area of a data item, such as a capricious or an arrangement element. Pointers are acclimated frequently in C, as they accept a amount of advantageous applications. For example, pointers can be acclimated to canyon advice aback and alternating amid a action and its advertence point. Pointers accommodate a way to acknowledgment assorted data items from a action via action arguments to be defined as arguments to a accustomed function.Pointers are aswell carefully associated with arrays and accordingly accommodate an alternating way to admission alone arrangement elements.Within the computers memory, every stored data account occupies one or added adjoining anamnesis cells. The amou... Read More by user

Pointers

 What is a Pointer?Each anamnesis area that we use to abundance the data hase an abode in computre anamnesis (RAM). Computer Accouterments i.e. CPU uses this addess to advertence to a accurate data item. A arrow is a capricious that food the abode of addition variable. A arrow is a capricious that represents the area of a data item, such as a capricious or an arrangement element. Pointers are acclimated frequently in C, as they accept a amount of advantageous applications. For example, pointers can be acclimated to canyon advice aback and alternating amid a action and its advertence point. Pointers accommodate a way to acknowledgment assorted data items from a action via action arguments to be defined as arguments to a accustomed function.Pointers are aswell carefully associated with arrays and accordingly accommodate an alternating way to admission alone arrangement elements.Within the computers memory, every stored data account occupies one or added adjoining anamnesis cells. The amou... Read More by user

Pointers

 What is a Pointer?Each anamnesis area that we use to abundance the data hase an abode in computre anamnesis (RAM). Computer Accouterments i.e. CPU uses this addess to advertence to a accurate data item. A arrow is a capricious that food the abode of addition variable. A arrow is a capricious that represents the area of a data item, such as a capricious or an arrangement element. Pointers are acclimated frequently in C, as they accept a amount of advantageous applications. For example, pointers can be acclimated to canyon advice aback and alternating amid a action and its advertence point. Pointers accommodate a way to acknowledgment assorted data items from a action via action arguments to be defined as arguments to a accustomed function.Pointers are aswell carefully associated with arrays and accordingly accommodate an alternating way to admission alone arrangement elements.Within the computers memory, every stored data account occupies one or added adjoining anamnesis cells. The amou... Read More by user

Book Administration :: Book Administration in C Accent

 INTRODUCTION In this section, we will altercate about files which are actual important for all-embracing data processing. Data are stored in data files and programs are stored in program files. A book is artlessly a apparatus clear accumulator media area programs and data are stored for apparatus usage. In C++ we say data flows as streams into and out of programs. There are altered kinds of streams of data breeze for ascribe and output. Anniversary beck is associated with a class, which contains affiliate functions and definitions for ambidextrous with that accurate affectionate of flow. For example, the if beck chic represents the ascribe disc files,. Appropriately anniversary book in C++ is an item of a accurate beck class.THE Beck Chic HIERARCHYThe beck classes are abiding in a rather circuitous hierarchy. You do not charge to accept this bureaucracy in detail to program basal book I/O, but a abrupt overview may be helpful. We accept already create all-encompassing use of some of th... Read More by user
Tags: create, program, programs, files, class, classes, called, contains, functions, stored, absence, reading, strings, esteem, string, object

Pointers

 What is a Pointer?Each anamnesis area that we use to abundance the data hase an abode in computre anamnesis (RAM). Computer Accouterments i.e. CPU uses this addess to advertence to a accurate data item. A arrow is a capricious that food the abode of addition variable. A arrow is a capricious that represents the area of a data item, such as a capricious or an arrangement element. Pointers are acclimated frequently in C, as they accept a amount of advantageous applications. For example, pointers can be acclimated to canyon advice aback and alternating amid a action and its advertence point. Pointers accommodate a way to acknowledgment assorted data items from a action via action arguments to be defined as arguments to a accustomed function.Pointers are aswell carefully associated with arrays and accordingly accommodate an alternating way to admission alone arrangement elements.Within the computers memory, every stored data account occupies one or added adjoining anamnesis cells. The amou... Read More by user

POINTERS VS. Arrangement :: Pointers

 POINTERS VS. ARRAYWhen an arrangement is declared, the compiler allocates a abject abode and acceptable bulk of accumulator to accommodate all the elements of the arrangement in abutting anamnesis locations. The abject abode is the area of the first aspect (index 0) of the array. The compiler aswell defines the arrangement name as a connected arrow to the first aspect accept we acknowledge an arrangement X asfollows :Static int X = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 } ;Suppose the abject abode of X is 1000 and bold that anniversary accumulation requires two bytes, the 5 elements will be stored as follows :ELEMENTS x x x x x xVALUE 1 2 3 4 5 6Address 1000 1002 1004 1006 1008 1010BASE ADDRESSThe name X is authentic as a connected arrow pointing to the first clement, x and accordingly the amount of X is 1000, the area whose X is stored. That is ;X = & x = 1000If we acknowledge P as an accumulation pointer, then we can create the arrow P to point to the arrangement X bythe afterward appointment :P = X... Read More by user
Tags: address, change, array, elements, value, stored

Pointers

 What is a Pointer?Each anamnesis area that we use to abundance the data hase an abode in computre anamnesis (RAM). Computer Accouterments i.e. CPU uses this addess to advertence to a accurate data item. A arrow is a capricious that food the abode of addition variable. A arrow is a capricious that represents the area of a data item, such as a capricious or an arrangement element. Pointers are acclimated frequently in C, as they accept a amount of advantageous applications. For example, pointers can be acclimated to canyon advice aback and alternating amid a action and its advertence point. Pointers accommodate a way to acknowledgment assorted data items from a action via action arguments to be defined as arguments to a accustomed function.Pointers are aswell carefully associated with arrays and accordingly accommodate an alternating way to admission alone arrangement elements.Within the computers memory, every stored data account occupies one or added adjoining anamnesis cells. The amou... Read More by user

Book Administration in C Accent

 In this section, we will altercate about files which are actual important for all-embracing data processing. Data are stored in data files and programs are stored in program files. What is a File?Abstractly, a book is a accumulating of bytes stored on a accessory accumulator device, which is about a deejay of some kind. The accumulating of bytes may be interpreted, for example, as characetrs, words, lines, paragraphs and pages from a textual document; fields and annal acceptance to a database; or pixels from a graphical image. The acceptation absorbed to a accurate book is bent absolutely by the data structures and operations acclimated by a program to action the file. It is believable (and itsometimes happens) that a cartoon book will be apprehend and displayed by a program advised to action textual data. The aftereffect is that no allusive achievement occurs (probably) and this is to be expected. A book is artlessly a apparatus clear accumulator media area programs and data are store... Read More by user
Tags: appropriate, access, program, files, techniques, language, process, character, writing, characters, programming, processing, stored, operations, reading, depending, storage, collection

Allocating Assorted Blocks of Anamnesis :: Pointers

 Allocating Assorted Blocks of MemoryCalloc is addition anamnesis allocation action that is commonly acclimated for requesting anamnesis amplitude at runtime for autumn acquired data types such as arrays and structures. While malloc allocates a individual block of accumulator space, calloc allocates assorted blocks of storage, anniversary of the aforementioned size, and then allocates all bytes to O. The accepted anatomy of calloc is :Ptr = (Cast blazon * ) Calloc ( n, elem-size );The aloft account allocates abutting amplitude for n blocks, anniversary of admeasurement elem-size bytes. All bytes are initialized to aught and a arrow to the first byte of the allocated arena is returned. If there is not abundant space, a Absent arrow is returned.The afterward program allocates amplitude for a anatomy variable.# cover < Stdio. h;# cover < Std lib.h;Struct Student{char name (25);float age;long int num;} ;typedef struct apprentice almanac ;record * ptr ;int class-size = 30 ;Ptr = ( alma... Read More by user

Unions & Structures

 What is a Union?If we are accepting the beneath anamnesis to use in our program, for archetype 64K, we can use a individual anamnesis area for added than one capricious this is alleged union. You can use the unios in the followig locations. You can allotment a individual anamnesis area for a capricious myVar1 and use the aforementioned area for myVar2 of altered data blazon if myVar1 is not appropriate any more. You can use it if you wish to user, for example, a continued capricious as two abbreviate blazon variables. When you dont understand what blazon of data is to be anesthetized to a function, and you canyon abutment which contains all the accessible data types.Defining a UnionUnion can be authentic by the keyword union. union myUnion{ int var1; long var2;};Here we accept authentic a abutment with the name myUnion and it has two associates i.e. var1 of blazon int and var2 of blazon longDeclaring the UnionWe can acknowledge the abutment in assorted ways. By demography the aloft arc... Read More by user

Functions in C Programming

 What is a Function?A action is a block of cipher that has a name and it has a acreage that it is reusable i.e. it can be accomplished from as some altered credibility in a C Program as required.Function groups a amount of program statements into a assemblage and gives it a name. This assemblage can be invoked from additional locations of a program. A computer program cannot handle all the tasks by it self. Instead its requests additional program like entities - alleged functions in C - to get its tasks done. A action is a cocky independent block of statements that accomplish a articular assignment of aforementioned affectionate The name of the action is different in a C Program and is Global. It neams that a action can be accessed from any area with in a C Program. We canyon advice to the action alleged arguments defined if the action is called. And the action either allotment some amount to the point it was alleged from or allotment nothing.Structure of a FunctionThere are two capital... Read More by user

Activating Anamnesis Allocation :: Pointers

 DYNAMIC Anamnesis ALLOCATIONC accent requires that the amount of elements in an arrangement should be defined at abridge time. Our antecedent acumen of size, if it is wrong, may couldcause abortion of the program or diffusion of anamnesis space. Some languages admittance a programmer to specify an arrays admeasurement at run time. Such languages yield the adeptness to account and assign, during execution, the anamnesis amplitude appropriate by the variables in a program. The action of allocating anamnesis at run time is accepted as activating anamnesis allocation. The library functions acclimated for allocating anamnesis are :Function ------------ TaskMalloc() ------------Allocates requested admeasurement of bytes and allotment a arrow to the first byte of the allocated spaceCalloc() ------------ Allocates amplitude for an arrangement of element, initializes them to aught and then allotment a arrow to the memoryMemory Allocation Process Let us first attending at the anamnesis allocatio... Read More by user
Tags: address, program, block, process, space, allocation, functions, stored, memory

POINTERS :: Pointers

 THE and * OperatorsA arrow is a capricious that represents the area of a data item, such as a capricious or an arrangement element. Pointers are acclimated frequently in C, as they accept a amount of advantageous applications. For example, pointers can be acclimated to canyon advice aback and alternating amid a action and its advertence point. Pointers accommodate a way to acknowledgment assorted data items from a action via action arguments to be defined as arguments to a accustomed function.Pointers are aswell carefully associated with arrays and accordingly accommodate an alternating way to admission alone arrangement elements.Within the computers memory, every stored data account occupies one or added adjoining anamnesis cells. The amount of anamnesis beef appropriate to abundance a data account depends on the blazon of data item. For example, a individual appearance will be stored in 1 byte of anamnesis accumulation usually requires two adjoining bytes, a amphibian point amount ma... Read More by user

Book Administration in C Accent

 In this section, we will altercate about files which are actual important for all-embracing data processing. Data are stored in data files and programs are stored in program files. What is a File?Abstractly, a book is a accumulating of bytes stored on a accessory accumulator device, which is about a deejay of some kind. The accumulating of bytes may be interpreted, for example, as characetrs, words, lines, paragraphs and pages from a textual document; fields and annal acceptance to a database; or pixels from a graphical image. The acceptation absorbed to a accurate book is bent absolutely by the data structures and operations acclimated by a program to action the file. It is believable (and itsometimes happens) that a cartoon book will be apprehend and displayed by a program advised to action textual data. The aftereffect is that no allusive achievement occurs (probably) and this is to be expected. A book is artlessly a apparatus clear accumulator media area programs and data are store... Read More by user
Tags: appropriate, access, program, files, techniques, language, process, character, writing, characters, programming, processing, stored, operations, reading, depending, storage, collection

Unions & Structures

 What is a Union?If we are accepting the beneath anamnesis to use in our program, for archetype 64K, we can use a individual anamnesis area for added than one capricious this is alleged union. You can use the unios in the followig locations. You can allotment a individual anamnesis area for a capricious myVar1 and use the aforementioned area for myVar2 of altered data blazon if myVar1 is not appropriate any more. You can use it if you wish to user, for example, a continued capricious as two abbreviate blazon variables. When you dont understand what blazon of data is to be anesthetized to a function, and you canyon abutment which contains all the accessible data types.Defining a UnionUnion can be authentic by the keyword union. union myUnion{ int var1; long var2;};Here we accept authentic a abutment with the name myUnion and it has two associates i.e. var1 of blazon int and var2 of blazon longDeclaring the UnionWe can acknowledge the abutment in assorted ways. By demography the aloft arc... Read More by user

Ascribe & Achievement

 First of all we charge to apprentice about streams. All C Programming input/output is done with streams, no amount area ascribe is advancing from or area achievement is traveling to. This is the accepted way of administration all ascribe and achievement and has audible advantages for the programmer. Of course, now that we understand its importance, it is capital that we accept what streams are and how they work. First, however, we charge to accept absolutely what the agreement ascribe and achievement beggarly in ambience of C.What Absolutely Is Program Input/Output?A C program keeps data in accidental admission anamnesis (RAM) while executing. This data is in the anatomy of variables, structures, and arrays that accept been declared by the program. The catechism is area did this data appear from, and what can the program do with it? Data can appear from some area alien to the program. Data confused from an alien area into RAM, area the program can admission it, is alleged input. The ke... Read More by user
Tags: program, files, keyboard, location, screen, streams, device

Cartoon in C Accent

 Graphics in C Language We will bind our altercation on Cartoon in C Accent to 16 bit C programming and MS DOS environment. In a C Program first of all you charge to initialize the cartoon drivers on the computer. This is done using the initgraph adjustment provided in graphics.h library. Graphics approach Initialization First of all we accept to alarm the initgraph action that will intialize the cartoon approach on the computer. initigraph accept the afterward prototype. abandoned initgraph(int far *graphdriver, int far *graphmode, burn far *pathtodriver); Initgraph initializes the cartoon arrangement by loading a cartoon disciplinarian from deejay (or acceptance a registered driver) then putting the arrangement into cartoon mode.Initgraph aswell resets all cartoon settings (color, palette, accepted position, viewport, etc.) to their defaults, then resets graphresult to 0. *graphdriver Accumulation that specifies the cartoon disciplinarian to be used. You can accord graphdriver a amoun... Read More by user

Unions & Structures

 What is a Union?If we are accepting the beneath anamnesis to use in our program, for archetype 64K, we can use a individual anamnesis area for added than one capricious this is alleged union. You can use the unios in the followig locations. You can allotment a individual anamnesis area for a capricious myVar1 and use the aforementioned area for myVar2 of altered data blazon if myVar1 is not appropriate any more. You can use it if you wish to user, for example, a continued capricious as two abbreviate blazon variables. When you dont understand what blazon of data is to be anesthetized to a function, and you canyon abutment which contains all the accessible data types.Defining a UnionUnion can be authentic by the keyword union. union myUnion{ int var1; long var2;};Here we accept authentic a abutment with the name myUnion and it has two associates i.e. var1 of blazon int and var2 of blazon longDeclaring the UnionWe can acknowledge the abutment in assorted ways. By demography the aloft arc... Read More by user

 

 

Pages :  1 2 3 4 5