What Is a Stream? :: Ascribe & Achievement

 31 December 18:00   

    

A beck is a arrangement of characters. Added exactly, it is a arrangement of bytes

    

of data. A arrangement of bytes abounding into a program is an ascribe stream; a arrangement

    

of bytes abounding out of a program is an achievement stream. By absorption on streams,

    

we don t accept to anguish as abundant about area they re traveling or area they originated.



    

The above advantage of streams, therefore, is that input/output program ming

    

is accessory independent. Programmers don t charge to address appropriate input/output

    

functions for anniversary accessory (keyboard, disk, and so on). The program sees input/output

    

as a connected beck of bytes no amount area the ascribe is advancing from or

    

traveling to.



    

Every C beck is affiliated to a file. In this context, the appellation book doesn t

    

accredit to a deejay file. Rather, it is an average move amid the beck

    

that the program deals with and the absolute concrete accessory getting acclimated for ascribe

    

or output. For the alotof part, the alpha C program mer doesn t charge to be

    

anxious with these files, because the data of interactions amid streams,

    

files, and accessories are taken affliction of automatically by the C library functions

    

and the operating system.



    

Modes of Streams in C Language



    

C streams can be disconnected into two modes: argument and binary.



    

Text Stream



    

A argument beck consists alone of characters, such as argument data getting beatific to

    

the screen. Argument streams are organized into lines, which can be up to 255 characters

    

continued and are concluded by an end-of-line, or newline, character. Assertive characters

    

in a argument beck are accustomed as accepting appropriate meaning, such as the newline

    

character.



    

Binary Stream



    

A bifold beck can handle any array of data, including, but not bound to,

    

argument data. Bytes of data in a bifold beck aren t translated or interpreted

    

in any appropriate way; they are apprehend and accounting absolutely as-is. Bifold streams

    

are acclimated primarily with deejay files.



    

Predefined Streams



    

ANSI C has three predefined

    

streams, aswell referred to as the accepted input/output files. If you re

    

program ming for an IBM-compatible PC active DOS, two added accepted

    

streams are accessible to you. These streams are automatically opened if a C

    

program starts active and are bankrupt if the program terminates. The

    

programmer doesn t charge to yield any appropriate activity to create these streams

    

available. Table lists the accepted streams and the accessories they commonly are

    

connected with. All 5 of the accepted streams are text-mode

    

streams.



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    



    

The 5

    

standard streams.

NAMESTREAMDEVICE
stdinStandard

    

Input

Keyboard
stdoutStandard

    

Output

Screen
stderrStandard

    

Error

Screen
stdprn*Standard

    

Printer

Printer

    

(LPT1)

stdaux*Standard

    

Auxiliary

Serial Anchorage

    

(COM1)

(*) Accurate alone beneath DOS



    

Whenever we accept to use the printf() or puts() functions to affectation argument on-screen,

    

we use the stdout stream. Likewise, if we use gets() or scanf() to apprehend keyboard

    

input, we use the stdin stream. The accepted streams are opened automatically,

    

but additional streams, such as those acclimated to dispense advice stored on disk,

    

haveto be opened explicitly.



    

 


Tags: program, files, characters, functions, automatically, streams, device, special

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