What Is a Stream? :: Ascribe & Achievement

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 31 December 18:00   


A beck is a arrangement of characters. Added exactly, it is a arrangement of bytes


of data. A arrangement of bytes abounding into a program is an ascribe stream; a arrangement


of bytes abounding out of a program is an achievement stream. By absorption on streams,


we don t accept to anguish as abundant about area they re traveling or area they originated.


The above advantage of streams, therefore, is that input/output program ming


is accessory independent. Programmers don t charge to address appropriate input/output


functions for anniversary accessory (keyboard, disk, and so on). The program sees input/output


as a connected beck of bytes no amount area the ascribe is advancing from or


traveling to.


Every C beck is affiliated to a file. In this context, the appellation book doesn t


accredit to a deejay file. Rather, it is an average move amid the beck


that the program deals with and the absolute concrete accessory getting acclimated for ascribe


or output. For the alotof part, the alpha C program mer doesn t charge to be


anxious with these files, because the data of interactions amid streams,


files, and accessories are taken affliction of automatically by the C library functions


and the operating system.


Modes of Streams in C Language


C streams can be disconnected into two modes: argument and binary.


Text Stream


A argument beck consists alone of characters, such as argument data getting beatific to


the screen. Argument streams are organized into lines, which can be up to 255 characters


continued and are concluded by an end-of-line, or newline, character. Assertive characters


in a argument beck are accustomed as accepting appropriate meaning, such as the newline




Binary Stream


A bifold beck can handle any array of data, including, but not bound to,


argument data. Bytes of data in a bifold beck aren t translated or interpreted


in any appropriate way; they are apprehend and accounting absolutely as-is. Bifold streams


are acclimated primarily with deejay files.


Predefined Streams


ANSI C has three predefined


streams, aswell referred to as the accepted input/output files. If you re


program ming for an IBM-compatible PC active DOS, two added accepted


streams are accessible to you. These streams are automatically opened if a C


program starts active and are bankrupt if the program terminates. The


programmer doesn t charge to yield any appropriate activity to create these streams


available. Table lists the accepted streams and the accessories they commonly are


connected with. All 5 of the accepted streams are text-mode


































The 5


standard streams.



















Serial Anchorage



(*) Accurate alone beneath DOS


Whenever we accept to use the printf() or puts() functions to affectation argument on-screen,


we use the stdout stream. Likewise, if we use gets() or scanf() to apprehend keyboard


input, we use the stdin stream. The accepted streams are opened automatically,


but additional streams, such as those acclimated to dispense advice stored on disk,


haveto be opened explicitly.



Tags: program, files, characters, functions, automatically, streams, device, special

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Article In : Computers & Technology  -  C Language Programming