Internet Technologies Area names

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 04 July 12:21   The Area Name System, alotof generally accepted as artlessly DNS, is a amount affection of the . It is a broadcast database that handles the mapping amid host Name s (domain Name s), which are added acceptable for humans, and the after . For example, is a area Name and the agnate after internet address. The area Name arrangement acts abundant like an automatic buzz book, so you can alarm instead of So, it converts human-friendly Name s such as into computer-friendly (IP) addresses such as It can aswell handle the about-face mapping, acceptation that we can concern for a Name for, that acknowledgment

    DNS was first invented in 1983 by ; the aboriginal blueprint are declared in 882. In 1987 RFC 1034 and RFC 1035 were appear which adapted the DNS specifcation and create RFC 882 and RFC 883 obsolete. Consecutive to that there accept been absolutely a few RFCs appear that adduce assorted extensions to the amount protocols.

    DNS accouterments a hierarchical Name amplitude by acceptance Name account for locations of a Name amplitude accepted as zones to be delegated by a to accessory name-servers. DNS aswell provides added information, such as alias names for systems, acquaintance information, and which hosts act as mail hubs for groups of systems or domains.

    The present brake on the breadth of area names is 63 characters, excluding the www. and .com or additional extension. Area names are aswell bound to a subset of characters, preventing some languages from apery their names and words correctly. The -based system, which maps strings into the accurate DNS appearance set, has been accustomed by and adopted by some as a workaround.

    The DNS arrangement is run by assorted flavors of DNS software, including:

    Any computer arrangement can use DNS to apparatus its own clandestine name system. However, the appellation area name is alotof frequently acclimated to accredit to area names implemented in the accessible DNS system. This is based on thirteen basis servers worldwide, all but three of which are in the . From these thirteen , the blow of the Internet DNS name amplitude is delegated to additional DNS servers which serve names aural specific locations of the DNS name space.

    An buyer of a area name can be begin by searching in the database: for alotof TLDs a basal WHOIS is captivated by ICANN, with the abundant WHOIS maintained by the area anthology which controlls that domain. For the 240+ Country Cipher TLDs the position is usually that the anthology holds the absolute authorative WHOIS for that extension, as allotment of their some functions.

    The accepted way the capital DNS arrangement is controlled is generally criticized. The alotof accepted problems acicular at are that it is abused by monopolies or near-monopolies such as Inc., and problems with appointment of s.

    Some aswell adduce that some implementations of DNS server software abort to plan alluringly with dynamically allocated IP addresses, although that is the abortion of specific implementations and not failures of the agreement itself.

    DNS uses and 53. Alotof DNS queries (such as name resolution requests) use UDP access as the bulk of data transferred is baby and the affair enactment aerial would acquaint accidental cartage and amount on nameservers. DNS area book transfers amid nameserver aeon use TCP access as the aggregate of data transferred is potentially abundant larger.

    A DNS area analogue (sometimes referred to as a area file) consists of alone DNS records. There are several almanac types in accepted usage:

    Virtually all avant-garde operating systems and arrangement applications accommodate resolver libraries or routines for interrogating DNS services. However, OSs about accommodate a command band interface for querying DNS servers. The Windows NT ancestors of operating systems provides the nslookup command. Unix-based operating systems may aswell action nslookup or dig tools.

    nslookup can either be acclimated interactively, or non-interactively. An archetype of non-interactive acceptance follows. In this example, we accumulate the A almanac for from the audience absence nameserver:


    Nslookup is somewhat added able if acclimated interactively. An archetype of this follows. In the example, we acquisition the mail servers for the area


    > set q=MX


    Non-authoritative answer: MX alternative = 50, mail exchanger = MX alternative = 10, mail exchanger =


    See also: , , ,



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